What to do in technical dangers

How to behave in the event of fire?

Fire may be caused even by a minor negligence. Here’s a real example: when cigarette butt burns sofa or armchair, after 3 minutes room fills with toxic smokes. Consequently, people lose consciousness and suffocate in the room. Fire spreads fast - after 10-15 minutes all room is on fire.

No time for delay! It is important to think of further steps in case of fire in advance: how to behave, how to extinguish, how to get out of premises (evacuation), how and who should be informed about fire?

If your flat is on fire:

  • Call emergency number 112;
  • Shut off gas valves, turn off electricity (shut off electrical power);
  • Do not focus on saving your property - think of saving lives;
  • Leave your flat immediately;
  • Close the door;
  • Do not use lift – descend stairs;
  • Meet arriving firefighters.

If premises are full of smoke:

  • Cover your mouth and nose with a wet cloth;
  • Close the door where the fire occurs very carefully by covering up door bottom part;
  • Move by leaning or crawling;
  • If you cannot get into stairwell, open window or go to the balcony and cry for help;

If neighbour flat is on fire:

  • Call emergency number 112;
  • If smoke spread into stairwell – stay at your flat;
  • Cover door and ventilation openings with wet cloths;
  • Come to the window or go to the balcony so that arriving firefighters clearly see you.

If clothes are on fire:

  • Fall down to the ground and roll around so that fire would stop;
  • Cover your face with hands;
  • If another person is on fire, you should tumble him down;
  • Fire may be suppressed by using things around you (destination of movements: from top of the body to the bottom, i.e. from head to foot);
  • Burnt areas should be cooled by water or snow (for 15 minutes) as well as by covered with a towel;
  • Call emergency number 112.

If TV or another electronic device is on fire:

  • Pull out the plug or turn off electricity;
  • Throw a cloth (thick texture, natural fabric) on electronic device;
  • Use fire-extinguisher;
  • If you cannot handle to extinguish fire on your own and it the fire spread, leave the premises immediately;
  • When leaving, close the doors tightly;
  • Call 112 and inform your neighbours.

If grease or oil are on fire:

  • Cover the utensil with a lid;
  • Turn off the stove;
  • Hot grease/oil cannot be extinguished with water.

If car is on fire:

  • Shutdown the engine;
  • Open the engine bonnet a little and use fire-extinguisher.

Discuss evacuation with your family:

  • Talk about the way of behaving if fire or smoke intercept your exit (consider other possible exits: window or going to the balcony);
  • Agree on meeting place outside. In this case you will know whether all have left the burning building.

If you are in public place:

  • Remember that emergency exits are marked in green in public places;
  • There are at least two emergency exits at schools, shops, cinemas, restaurants, hotels or other public places, so be attentive and memorize them.

Important notice - acquire smoke detector:

  • Wakes you up in the event of the start of fire;
  • Install it on the ceiling of hallway, bedroom, attic;
  • Follow the instructions for maintaining the detector and change the battery every year.

How to use fireworks safely?

Using fireworks requires precautions: 

  • Do not let children to play or light pyrotechnic items since it may cause serious injuries;

  • Read the manufacturer’s instructions about lighting and launching fireworks and carefully follow it;

  • Launch fireworks away from buildings, vehicles, trees and crowded places since it may cause injuries or set on fire;

  • Always light fireworks on a hard and flat surface in order to ensure stability;

  • Keep safe distance from persons when they launch fireworks;

  • Never point or throw fireworks at other people;

  • Do not attempt to relight or fix not working (unexploded) pyrotechnics and avoid being close to it;

  • Do not use pyrotechnics for exploding other things, for example, bottles etc.;

  • Do not try making homemade fireworks since it has never been tested and it is hard to predict where shatters may spread. 


Injuries occurring due to careless and negligent use of pyrotechnics can be very dangerous and difficult to treat. 

According to the studies carried out in the United States of America, approx. 40 % injuries are related to head area, i.e. eyes, ears and face. Therefore, it is advised to wear safety goggles. Hand and finger injuries compose another 40 %. Most frequently, these injuries are burns. 

Fireworks result in injuries for 74 % men and 26 % women. In many cases, men got injured during the launching of fireworks and women got injured while watching it.  

Restrictions applied for using pyrotechnics:  

  • It is forbidden to use pyrotechnics closer than 30 m from schools, nursery-schools, health care and rehabilitation institutions;

  • Never bring pyrotechnics at schools since it is strictly forbidden;

  • Never use pyrotechnics from 22:00 to 8:00 (except for public holidays and mass gatherings, which possess permission for such use);

  • It is forbidden to use pyrotechnics for persons whose age is under 14, while certain categories of fireworks are forbidden to be sold and used by persons under 18 years of age;

  • It is forbidden to use and sell civil pyrotechnics for persons who are under the influence of alcohol, drugs or other psychotropic substances;

  • Maximum permissible amount of the pyrotechnic compound reaches 10 kg, but not more than 50 kg of fireworks in the shopping centres. This regulation shall not be applied to specialized shops. Temporary market stands/shops shall follow other limitations: 6 kg and 30 kg respectively. 

In case pyrotechnic item does not work: 

  • Do not come close to it for at least 5 minutes or according to the time indicated in the instruction;

  • Do not try to disassemble or ignite the item again;

  • After using fireworks, soak it into the water, then put into a bag and throw into a trash bin.

How to barbecue safely?

  • Consider choosing a safe and suitable location. Do not barbecue in the balcony because spark may cause fire in the balcony or even the in the house. It is forbidden to place and put barbecue grilling stoves or other barbecue devices closer than 6 metres to the building. You should also avoid close distance to fences, trees, bushes and flammable materials;

  • Barbecue device should be put on non-flammable surface. Avoid dry grass for putting the barbecue device;

  • Before starting a barbecue, spread the sparks evenly and have some water nearby to pour on the flames;

  • Keep an eye on children and pets (animals) in order to avoid them being close to barbecue device;

  • Barbecue should be lighted downwind side so that the wind would blow from you;

  • When barbecue is over, do not leave a barbecue device without supervision. Make sure that there is no smoldering coals or sparks which may be lighted by the wind;

  • When the barbecue is over, ashes should be put into a metal container;

  • Finally, place your barbecue device into a safe and convenient location.


How to behave during the heating season?

Before the heating

  • Buildings with furnaces should be put in order and chimneys should be cleaned before intensive heating;
  • On furnaces or near them one must not dry and hold firewood and other combustible materials, to leave opened the doors of a firebox;
  • To prevent charcoal that is dropped out of a furnace fire chamber from burning the floor, a slab of tin must be nailed onto it or a fireproof foundation must be built;
  • Do not leave the house when a furnace or gas stove is burning, and do not trust young children to look after it.

During the heating

While fuel is burning in a furnace, there is a risk of poisoning from carbon monoxide. This gas is especially dangerous – it has neither colour nor smell, so it can result in death. Please observe certain rules to avoid getting poisoned:

  • After heating the furnace, do not shut the damper until the furnace has cooled down;
  • You can shut it completely once you are sure that smoulder is over.

It is important to have carbon monoxide detector installed in the bedroom and other living rooms.

Signs of poisoning with carbon monoxide are the following: slight dizziness, drowsiness, fainting. Immediately take anyone that has been poisoned with carbon dioxide outdoors and call emergency number 112 as soon as possible; ventilate the rooms properly.

Using electric heating devices

  • It is dangerous to plug multiple electrical appliances into the power supply simultaneously because the wiring will be overloaded, the wires will heat up, and there can be a short circuit and even a fire;
  • Electric heating devices should be placed far from curtains and furniture;
  • Do not leave drying clothes on electric heating devices;
  • Do not forget to turn off electric heating devices before leaving home;
  • Before using manufacturer’s electric heating devices, read the instructions carefully;
  • Acquire and install smoke detectors (alarms) which would warn about fire risk.

In addition, home-made electric heaters comprise a major cause of fires. They are often the reason for fires in building carriages, small garden houses and garages.

To prevent loss of lives and so that firefighters could come to the rescue in time, provide access for fire engines to buildings, water, reservoirs, hydrants, do not block their vehicles, and come out to meet them in the distant countryside.

Using gas heaters

  • While using gas appliances, it is necessary to follow technical instructions and recommendations written by the manufacturer;
  • While installing gas appliances at home, the house shall have installed LPG alarm and automatic gas shut-off valves;
  • Premises equipped with gas appliances shall be ventilated. There shall be an opening window (to the outside) or window with air vents and doors. 


Remember that using gas heater (similar as using a furnace) may be dangerous because of the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Therefore, at least the bedroom should have an installed detector.

Note that there is a possibility of explosion in the event of gas leak (if gas accumulate in the air)!

 How to behave when you smell gas in premises?

  • Cover your nose and mouth with wet cloth or handkerchief;
  • Shut off gas valve, turn off gas appliance;
  • Open windows and doors so that fresh air flow inside;
  • Do not light a fire or strike matches, do not smoke;
  • Do not turn on electrical devices and switches;
  • If gas smell is still in the air, immediately call gas emergency service by calling 1804. Use your phone only where there is no gas smell observed or simply in a gas-clean environment.
  • If gas smell spread in the block of flats, warn neighbours not to use open flame and electrical bells/alarms;
  • Make sure that people being close to gas leakage immediately go outside;
  • Wait for emergency services outside.

How to behave in case of car fire?

In order to avoid car fire, drivers should maintain their vehicles: check its electricity, fueling system and gas equipment.

Major causes of car fires:

  • Electrical system failures;
  • Fuel system failures;
  • Gas equipment failures;
  • Other technical failures.

If your car is on fire:

  • Stop at roadside. Shut off the engine. Car keys should be left in the lock so that the steering wheel would not lock;
  • Get yourself and passengers out of the car;
  • Call emergency number 112;
  • Take your fire-extinguisher (it must be in your vehicle);
  • Open engine bonnet only if you have prepared fire-extinguisher in your hands;
  • Open engine bonnet just a little and extinguish fire by spraying it for a few times. This may help to avoid sudden flames from under the engine bonnet. Then, after a few seconds, open engine bonnet completely and extinguish the source of flames;
  • Fire should be extinguished very intensively: if fire outspreads to passenger compartment containing flammable substances, it would be impossible to extinguish fire without firefighters’ assistance. Note that one fire-extinguisher may be not enough, so ask for it from other drivers;
  • If you manage to extinguish fire on your own, turn off accumulator in order to avoid repeated fire;
  • In order to avoid an accident or to reduce possible loss, it is important to maintain vehicle technical condition and try to eliminate all possible defects and fix breakdown.
  • It is necessary to have a proper fire-extinguisher with at least 1 kg capacity. The fire-extinguisher should be put in a place which is easy to access. It is also recommended to have powder fire-extinguisher.

How to behave in case of increased air pollution in cities?

Increased environment air pollution in cities can be influenced by:

  • meteorological conditions;
  • intensive road traffic;
  • poorly maintained streets;
  • intensive heating;
  • forest and moor fires. 

Meteorological conditions may affect air quality in some ways. This kind of pollution may occur due to lack of wind or insufficient air flows in the lower layers. It may also occur because of dry weather (no rain for a long time). When the emission of pollutants is increased and certain meteorological conditions prevail, big cities may suffer from smog.

Road traffic is more intensive before working hours and right after working hours (peak hours). At that time motor vehicles release large quantity of pollutants into the air (solid particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide).

Increased concentration of solid particles in big cities may occur because of poorly maintained streets. This concentration may be particularly dangerous in spring.

During cold weather residents of big cities suffer from increased air pollution which is caused by intensive heating.

Increased air pollution impact on health of residents

Particulates absorb environment chemical and biological pollutants, so it may result in chronic poisoning and allergic reactions. Particulates are more likely to get into lungs while breathing through mouth, taking exercise and taking physical activities outside.

The most sensitive people to air pollution include:

  • babies and children (particularly up to 5 years old);
  • pregnant women;
  • the elderly;
  • persons with respiratory and circulatory diseases;
  • persons affected by other toxic substances which strengthen negative effect of pollutants;
  • persons living in adverse social-economic conditions.

General recommendations to residents in case of increased air pollution:

  • Spend more time in closed premises;
  • Do not open air vents, windows and doors;
  • Tightly close all ventilation holes;
  • Ventilate premises by using air conditioners or ventilate premises by covering windows or air vents with a wet cloth;
  • If you go by a car, windows must be shut;
  • Limit or avoid physical activities outside, educational establishments should suspend physical education classes which take place outside;
  • If possible, leave the city for a while, it is particularly recommended for the elderly, mothers with babies (up to 1 years old) and persons with bronchial asthma or other chronic respiratory diseases;
  • People with chronic illnesses must consider their medicines;
  • If you feel sick, go to the doctor;
  • Protect your respiratory tract by putting gauze mask (bandage), gauze-cotton mask (bandage) or respirator.

Individual protection measures may be:

  • Gauze mask (4-6 layers of gauze bandage) made individually;
  • Gauze-cotton mask (bandage) made individually;
  • Respirators can be acquired individually;
  • Respirators from State Reserve which can be provided only when an emergency is declared in the city

How to behave when you smell gas in premises?

  • Cover your nose and mouth with wet cloth or handkerchief;
  • Shut off gas valve, turn off gas appliance;
  • Open windows and doors so that fresh air flow inside;
  • Do not light a fire or strike matches, do not smoke;
  • Do not turn on electrical devices and switches;
  • If gas smell is still in the air, immediately call gas emergency service by calling 1804. Use your phone only where there is no gas smell observed or simply in a gas-clean environment.
  • If gas smell spread in the block of flats, warn neighbours not to use open flame and electrical bells/alarms;
  • Make sure that people being close to gas leakage immediately go outside;
  • Wait for emergency services outside.

How to behave in case of chemical pollution?

In case of an accident when dangerous chemical substances spread into the environment, or when there is an immediate threat of chemical contamination, Civil Protection Signal “Chemical alert” is declared. This alert is transmitted through all public information measures.  Therefore, turn on radio and television in order to receive updates and recommendations.

Note that:

  • in case of chemical contamination it is important to respond very fast;
  • dangerous chemical substances are particularly volatile and severely irritate respiratory pathways, eyes and skin, therefore, it is essential to protect these parts very carefully;
  • it is forbidden to eat, drink or smoke if you are in the territory contaminated with dangerous chemical substances.

If residents are informed to leave the contaminated districts or city parts:

  • Immediately put mask or respirator (if have such) or use gauze-cotton band. If you do not have such items - cover your nose and mouth with a sleeve, scarf or wet towel;
  • Put on protective clothes (water repellent/resistant jackets, raincoats, polythene raincoats), wear boots, put gloves and cap, wrap neck with a scarf, avoid leaving uncovered body parts;
  • Leave the contaminated zone to the destination indicated as soon as possible avoiding low places (upwind direction);
  • Do not hide in cellars, hollows, trenches or other low places since they accumulate dangerous substances;
  • Try not to raise dusts, not touch walls, fences or other things which may contain drops of dangerous substances while going through contaminated location;
  • Do not eat, drink, smoke or touch eyes and mouth.

Before leaving home (or other premises):

  • Shut off gas, electricity and water valves;
  • Lock doors, close windows and air vents, cover chimneys, air vents and other holes;
  • If you live in a rural area, pen livestock and tightly close them. Make sure that animals have enough water and fodder to stay for 2-3 days;
  • Cover wells if any;
  • Do not forget your neighbours and ask if they are informed about the situation. Your neighbours may belong to vulnerable groups: the disabled, the elderly or children. Ask if there are people who can take care of them, if not – help them or inform about the situation by calling emergency number 112.

If you have left contaminated zone, before entering clean premises, take off your outerwear, take off jewelry, take off shoes and put all these items into plastic bag. While taking off the clothes, avoid touching outside (external surface of garments) since there may be chemicals left on it. After taking off your clothes, wrap it by leaving its internal part outside (i.e. wrong side out). Do not take off your clothes over your head, it is better to cut your clothes so that spread of chemicals would be avoided. If possible, wash them with water or washing supplies. If not – leave the bag out of the clean territory.

If chemicals get on your skin or hair, immediately wash it with a great amount of water with soap. If you experience burning eyes or vision worsens – wash eyes with running water for 10-15 minutes. If you wear contact lenses, take it out and put together with contaminated clothes. Do not wear these lenses anymore. If you wear glasses – wash it with water and soap, after such cleaning you can wear it again;

If residents are told to stay at home:

  • protect respiratory tract – cover nose and mouth with cotton-gauze bandage or cover respiratory tract with a wet towel;
  • shut off valves of gas, electricity and water immediately;
  • tightly close front doors, windows and air vents;
  • cover chimneys, ventilation and other air vents;
  • ascend to upper floors since a great number of hazardous chemicals accumulate in lower places;
  • do not smoke and eat;
  •  follow further information about an incident.


  • First aid kit. Bear in mind daily taken medicines;
  • Documents (passport, birth certificate and marriage certificate, diploma, property documents);
  • Money (cash, credit cards, securities, valuables);
  • A few photos of family members;
  •  Food and drinking water (to survive for 2-3 days). If you take pets together – make sure to take some pet food;
  • Needed clothes (considering the season);
  • Toiletries;
  • Portable radio and flashlight, spare batteries (elements);
  • Notebook with indicated phone numbers and addresses;
  • A few favourite toys for children.

Ammonia, chlorine and mercury are most frequently used chemical substances causing potentialdanger.

Ammonia – pungent odour gas, which is lighter-than-air. In case of an accident, ammonia vapours in 10-15 minutes. Its compound may explode due to spark and inflame from open flame).

Symptoms of ammonia poisoning:

  • Itching and running eyes;
  • Cough attack;
  • Vertigo;
  • Stomachache, nausea, vomit;
  • Feeling of anxiety, jactitation;
  • Lost consciousness;
  • Start of convulsion.

First aid

  • Immediately call emergency number 112;
  • Go out and take victim out of the contaminated premises;
  • Undo victim’s collar, ensure that he/she would get fresh air;
  • If victim is unconscious, lay him/her down on side and keep a close watch so that the victim would not choke (if vomit starts).
  • If breathing or heart stops – perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (only if you are able to provide such assistance).
  • First aid provider should have protective measures;
  • If ammonia vapours gets into eyes, immediately wash it with slight water or physiological saline spout. Washing should last no shorter than 5-10 minutes;
  • Gargle mouth and throat with water or physiological saline.

Chlorine – pungent odour gas, having colour of greenish-yellow, about 2.5 times as heavier than air. It accumulates in low places, tunnels, wells and may keep for a few days. Inhalation or contact with skin can be dangerous:

  • Irritates airways (respiratory organs);
  • Causes dry cough and choke;
  • Pain in thorax;
  • Irritates mucous membranes of eyes, causes eye itching and watering;
  • Causes nausea;
  • Disturbs movements;
  • Burns skin if there is a contact;
  • In case of great concentration of chlorine, a person starts to choke and dies.

First aid

  • Immediately call emergency number 112;
  • It is necessary to put a mask on a person who have suffered from chlorine vapour or a mask of European Standard with letter B. If there are no possibilities to put a mask, gauze-cotton string moistened with 2% drinking soda solution may be appropriate as well. The victim should be carried out from the contaminated zone.
  • When a victim is in the fresh air, take off respiratory mask, undo clothes which may disturb breathing, then lay him/her down and cover the victim;
  • Mouth, nose and eyes should be washed with water;
  • Open body parts should be washed with water for 10-15 minutes;
  • If breathing and heart stop - perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (only if you are able to provide such assistance).
  • The provider of assistance should have protection measures (wearing a mask or cotton gauze bandage).


Toxic metal, which vapours at room temperature. The higher the temperature, the bigger concentration of mercury gets into the environment. Its vapours get into human through airways, gut, skin and mucous membranes. In case a human inhales mercury, it gets into blood through lungs, accumulates in kidney, liver and brain.

What to do if a mercury thermometer breaks?

If you break a thermometer and mercury spills on the table or floor, do not try to clean it with wiper – mercury will spread broader and you increase its evaporation surface.

In order to collect mercury: prepare a bottle with water and tight plug (cork), have a stick/dropper (wooden or vitreous), rubber pump, envelope or strong paper sheet, tape or paper sheet with some glue, 0,2% potassium permanganate solution (2g potassium permanganate per 1l water).

The biggest mercury balls should be collected by stick moving the balls into an envelope or just by pouring them into a bottle.

Rubber pump is helpful in order to suck smaller balls, while the smallest mercury balls could be picked by sticky tape or simply glued paper.

All mercury balls collected should be placed into a bottle with water and heat-sealed.

Use potassium permanganate solution for cleaning the surface on which mercury was spilled. The premises should be well cleaned and ventilated. After that you must wash your hands and face with soap, rinse your throat and wash clothes.

Address to emergency services regarding the transfer of item in which you put the collected mercury balls.

What to do in case of mercury spill?

Immediately call emergency number 112.

Note: you can come back to affected premises only after receiving evaluation (permission) from National Public Health Center under the Ministry of Health or its correspondent department.

How to behave in case of biological contamination?

International, economic and cultural relations as well as migration of residents result in increased probability in broader spread of communicable diseases. There is also a possible threat of using communicable diseases for terroristic purposes.

In case of biological contamination:

  • Listen to the radio and TV for the newest updates;
  • Try to stay calm and do not panic;
  • Do not use products which are not heat-treated;
  • Use product which are heat-sealed;
  • Drink boiled water only;
  • Follow personal hygiene requirements;
  • Clean premises with wet cloth;
  • If you feel symptoms such as nausea, vomit, diarrhoea and rising temperature, immediately call ambulance.

Note that communicable diseases spread while drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food products, ignoring personal hygiene requirements, touching contaminated things and contacting with contaminated people.

If you receive a suspicious envelope or parcel:

  • Do not shake and do not spill out its content;
  • Put envelope or parcel into plastic bag or another tightly closed item in order not to spill out its content;
  • If you do not have another item where to put, envelope or parcel may be wrapped (clothes, paper etc.), yet you should not take it off;
  • Close windows, leave room and close doors. Do not let other people to come in;
  • Wash hands with soap;
  • If you are at home, call 112.
  •  If you are at workplace, firstly inform head of institution and call 112. Write down all persons who were in that room or territory, where the envelope or parcel was found. Give this list local health care institutions and judicial officers so that they could carry out further investigation and provide recommendations.

If you receive an envelope with powders and they have spilled:

  • Do not try to clean, smell or touch it! Immediately cover powder with clothes, paper or other things;
  • Turn off ventilators and air conditioning system of the building;
  • Leave room and close door. Do not let other people to come in;
  • Wash hands with soap;
  • Immediately take off contaminated clothes and put them into plastic bag or another container which could be sealed. These clothes should be given to emergency staff;
  • Immediately take a shower with a soap. Do not use bleach or other detergents;
  • Do not carry the parcel on your own to the police or health care institution;
  • If you are at home, call 112;
  • If you are at workplace, inform head of institution and call 112. Inform security guards or other keepers;
  • Write down all people who were in that room or territory, particularly those who had direct contact with powder. Submit this list to local health care institutions and judicial officers so that they could pursue further investigation and provide recommendations.
  • Note that if your eyes are running or irritated, if you cough or experience skin irritation – refer to doctors.

In case of suspicion that the environment has been contaminated with biological agent:

  • Turn off ventilators which are in premises or territory;
  • Turn off air conditioning system of the building;
  • Immediately leave premises or territory;
  • Close windows and doors, do not let someone to come to premises or territory;
  • Immediately inform head of institution and call emergency number 112;
  • Write down all persons who were in the contaminated room, premises or territory so that correspondent specialists could carry out works and provide urgent first aid.

Features of a suspicious letter or parcel:

  • Too big post expenses;
  • Hand-written or poorly printed address;
  • Cut and glued printed letters;
  • Mistakes in words;
  • No backward address;
  • Greasy spots, blurred colours;
  • Skew or rugged envelope;
  • Protruding wires or aluminium foil;
  • Ticking noise;
  • Marked with “personal” or “confidential”;
  • Specific smell;
  • Powdery content may be seen or felt.